2016

Simulation Based Selection of Actions for a Humanoid Soccer-Robot
Heinrich Mellmann, Benjamin Schlotter, Christian Blum
RoboCup 2016: Robot Soccer World Cup XX, inproceedings, to appear
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: This paper introduces a method for making fast decisions in a highly dynamic situation, based on forward simulation. This approach is inspired by the decision problem within the RoboCup domain. In this environment, selecting the right action is often a challenging task. The outcome of a particular action may depend on a wide variety of environmental factors, such as the robot's position on the field or the location of obstacles. In addition, the perception is often heterogeneous, uncertain, and incomplete. In this context, we investigate forward simulation as a versatile and extensible yet simple mechanism for inference of decisions. The outcome of each possible action is simulated based on the estimated state of the situation. The simulation of a single action is split into a number of simple deterministic simulations -- samples -- based on the uncertainties of the estimated state and of the action model. Each of the samples is then evaluated separately, and the evaluations are combined and compared with those of other actions to inform the overall decision. This allows us to effectively combine heterogeneous perceptual data, calculate a stable decision, and reason about its uncertainty. This approach is implemented for the kick selection task in the RoboCup SPL environment and is actively used in competitions. We present analysis of real game data showing significant improvement over our previous methods.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {RC-MellmannSchlotterBlum-16,
  author = {Heinrich Mellmann and Benjamin Schlotter and Christian Blum},
  title = {Simulation Based Selection of Actions for a Humanoid Soccer-Robot},
  booktitle = {RoboCup 2016: Robot Soccer World Cup XX},
  year = {2016},
  url = {http://www.ais.uni-bonn.de/robocup.de/2016/papers/RoboCup_Symposium_2016_Mellmann.pdf},
  note = {to appear}
}

2014

Multi-Hypothesis Goal Modeling for a Humanoid Soccer Robot
Marcus M Scheunemann, Heinrich Mellmann
Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Humanoid Soccer Robots, 14th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids), inproceedings
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: Information about objects and their positions in an environment are necessary requirements for most tasks of a mobile autonomous robot, in particular regarding the control of behavior and navigation. This presents a special challenge for robots with a limited view angle. Autonomously soccer playing robots in the dynamic environment of the RoboCup Standard Platform League are exposed to these difficulties. Most approaches aggregate all available information in one holistic model in order to localize robots. In case of inconsistent perceptions the model either turns noisy or creates and tracks an addiotional hypothesis. To improve the localization -- and thus the behavior control -- local models have received only little attention so far. In this work the implementation of a local goal model is presented and analyzed. A multi-hypothesis particle filter is used to cope with ambiguity of goal post percepts as well as to process incomplete and uncertain sensor information. Additionally, a percept buffer supports the initialization and also facilitates the handling of sparse false measurements. On the basis of this local goal model inconsistencies can be explicitly modeled, which may be used to stabilize the location of a robot.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {HSR-ScheunemannMellmann-14,
  author = {Marcus M Scheunemann and Heinrich Mellmann},
  title = {Multi-Hypothesis Goal Modeling for a Humanoid Soccer Robot},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Humanoid Soccer Robots, 14th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids)},
  year = {2014},
  url = {http://www.ais.uni-bonn.de/humanoidsoccer/ws14/papers/HSR14_Scheunemann.pdf}
}

2013

Voronoi Based Strategic Positioning for Robot Soccer
Steffen Kaden, Heinrich Mellmann, Marcus Scheunemann, Hans-Dieter Burkhard
Proceedings of the 22nd International Workshop on Concurrency, Specification and Programming (CS&P), 1032, pp. 271-282, inproceedings
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: Strategic positioning is a decisive part of the team play within a soccer game. In most solutions the positioning techniques are treated as a constituent of a complete team play strategy. In a comprehensive overview we discuss the team play and positioning methods used within RoboCup and extract the essential requirements for player positioning. In this work, we propose an approach for strategic positioning allowing for flexible formulation of arbitrary strategies. Based on the conditions of a specific strategy, the field is subdivided in regions by a Voronoi tessellation and each region is assigned a weight. Those weights influence the calculation of the optimal robot position as well as the path. A team play strategy can be expressed by the choice of the tessellation as well as the choice of the weights. This provides a powerful abstraction layer simplifying the design of the actual play strategy. We also present an implementation of an example strategy based on this approach and analyse the performance of our approach in simulation.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {CSP-KadenMellmannEtAl-13,
  author = {Steffen Kaden and Heinrich Mellmann and Marcus Scheunemann and Hans-Dieter Burkhard},
  title = {Voronoi Based Strategic Positioning for Robot Soccer},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd International Workshop on Concurrency, Specification and Programming (CS&P)},
  publisher = {CEUR-WS.org},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {1032},
  pages = {271-282}
}
Adaptive Grasping for a Small Humanoid Robot Utilizing Force- and Electric Current Sensors
Heinrich Mellmann, Marcus Scheunemann, Oliver Stadie
Proceedings of the 22nd International Workshop on Concurrency, Specification and Programming (CS&P), 1032, pp. 283-293, inproceedings
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: The ability to grasp objects of different size and shape is one of the most important skills of a humanoid robot. Human grasping integrates a lot of different senses. In particular, the tactile sensing is very important for a stable grasping motion. When we lift a box without knowing what is inside, we do it carefully using our tactile and proprioceptive senses to estimate the weight and thus, the force necessary to hold and to lift this box. In this paper we present an adaptive controlling mechanism which enables a robot to grasp objects of different weights. Thereby, we only use the proprioceptive sensors like positions and electric current at the joints and force sensors at the end-effectors providing the robot with tactile feedback. We implemented and tested our approach on a humanoid robot.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {CSP-MellmannScheunemannEtAl-13,
  author = {Heinrich Mellmann and Marcus Scheunemann and Oliver Stadie},
  title = {Adaptive Grasping for a Small Humanoid Robot Utilizing Force- and Electric Current Sensors},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd International Workshop on Concurrency, Specification and Programming (CS&P)},
  publisher = {CEUR-WS.org},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {1032},
  pages = {283-293}
}

2011

Dynamic Motion Control: Adaptive Bimanual Grasping for a Humanoid Robot
Heinrich Mellmann, Giuseppe Cotugno
Fundamenta Informaticae, 112, 1, pp. 89-101, article
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: The ability to grasp objects of different size and shape is one of the most important skills of a humanoid robot. There are a lot of different approaches tackling this problem; however, there is no general solution. The complexity and the skill of a possible grasping motion depend hardly on a particular robot. In this paper we analyze the kinematic and sensory grasping abilities of the humanoid robot Nao. Its kinematic constraints and hand's mechanical structure represent an interesting case of study due to lack of actuators for fingers and the limited computation power. After describing the platform and studying its capabilities, we propose some simple controllers and we present a benchmark based on some experimental data.
BibTeX:
@article {FI-MellmannCotugno-11,
  author = {Heinrich Mellmann and Giuseppe Cotugno},
  title = {Dynamic Motion Control: Adaptive Bimanual Grasping for a Humanoid Robot},
  journal = {Fundamenta Informaticae},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {112},
  number = {1},
  pages = {89-101}
}
Local Goal Model for a Humanoid Soccer Robot
Heinrich Mellmann, Marcus Scheunemann
Proceedings of the Workshop on Concurrency, Specification, and Programming CS&P 2011, pp. 353-360, inproceedings
[BibTeX]
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {CSP-MellmannScheunemann-11,
  author = {Heinrich Mellmann and Marcus Scheunemann},
  title = {Local Goal Model for a Humanoid Soccer Robot},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Workshop on Concurrency, Specification, and Programming CS&P 2011},
  publisher = {Bia{l}ystok University of Technology},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {353-360}
}

2010

Dynamic Motion Control: Adaptive Bimanual Grasping for a Humanoid Robot
Giuseppe Cotugno, Heinrich Mellmann
Workshop on Concurrency, Specification, and Programming (CS&P), Volume 2, inproceedings
[BibTeX][Abstract]
Abstract: In this paper we analyze the kinematic and sensory grasping abilities of the humanoid robot Nao. Its kinematic constraints and hand's mechanical structure represent an interesting case of study due to lack of actuators for fingers and the limited computation power. After describing the platform and studying its capabilities, we propose some simple controllers and we present a benchmark based on some experimental data.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {CSP-CotugnoMellmann-10,
  author = {Giuseppe Cotugno and Heinrich Mellmann},
  title = {Dynamic Motion Control: Adaptive Bimanual Grasping for a Humanoid Robot},
  booktitle = {Workshop on Concurrency, Specification, and Programming (CS&P)},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {Volume 2}
}
Ein anderes Modell der Welt: Alternative Methoden zur Lokalisierung Mobiler Roboter
Heinrich Mellmann
mastersthesis, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: Many tasks of a mobile robot, e.g., navigation, require the knowledge of the positions of the objects in the surrounding environment. This task is especially challenging for the robots which perception is based on a directed visual system, e.g., a camera with a limited view angle. The incomplete and noisy sensor information leads to the uncertainty in the robots belief of the world. An appropriate model of the world may enable the robot to make plans and to realize complex behavior. The state of the art modeling methods use often only a small part of the available information. In particular the redundant information remain unused. In this work we investigate methods to exploit effectively the redundant information in order to get a better model of the world. In the first part we discuss a number of possibilities to use of specific properties of the objects to estimate the parameters of the camera matrix. In the second part we present a constraint based approach for the world modeling.
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis {DiplomaThesis-Mellmann-10,
  author = {Heinrich Mellmann},
  title = {Ein anderes Modell der Welt: Alternative Methoden zur Lokalisierung Mobiler Roboter},
  year = {2010},
  type = {Diploma Thesis},
  school = {Humboldt Universität zu Berlin},
  url = {http://www.heinrich-mellmann.de/content/publications/data/2011-05-13-diplomarbeit-mellmann-very-final.pdf}
}
Adaptive Motion Control with Visual Feedback for a Humanoid Robot
Heinrich Mellmann, Yuan Xu
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2010), inproceedings
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: The performance of a soccer robot is highly dependent on its motion ability. The kicking motion is one of the most important motions in a soccer game. However, automatic, full body motion generation for humanoid robots presents a formidable computational challenge. At the current state the most common approaches of implementing this motion are based on key frame technique. Such solutions are inflexible, i.e., in order to adjust the aimed direction of the kick the robot has to walk around the ball. The adjustment costs a lot of time especially if some precise adjustments have to be done, e.g., for a penalty kick. In this paper we present an approach for adaptive control of the motions. We implemented our approach in order to solve the task of kicking the ball on a humanoid robot Nao. The approach was tested both in simulation and on a real robot.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {IROS-MellmannXu-10,
  author = {Heinrich Mellmann and Yuan Xu},
  title = {Adaptive Motion Control with Visual Feedback for a Humanoid Robot},
  booktitle = {IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2010)},
  year = {2010}
}
NaoTH Software Architecture for an Autonomous Agent
Heinrich Mellmann, Yuan Xu, Thomas Krause, Florian Holzhauer
Proceedings of the International Workshop on Standards and Common Platforms for Robotics (SCPR 2010), pp. 316-327, inproceedings
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: An appropriate architecture (i.e., framework) is the base of each successful heterogeneous software project. It enables a group of developers to work at the same project and to organize their solutions. From this point of view, the artificial intelligence and/or robotics related research projects are usually more complicated, since the actual result of the project is often not clear. In particular, a strong organization of the software is necessary if the project is involved in education. Obviously, there is no perfect framework which could satisfy all the needs of the developers. In this paper we present a modular software architecture designed to implement an autonomous agent. In particular, it is used to develop software which is used simultaneously at several platforms (e.g., humanoid robot, simulated agent). One of the main aspects considered in our design is a strong code modularization which allows for re-usability, transparency and easily testing. Other important aspects are real-time applicability and simple usage. This paper presents the main concepts and the particular implementation of the important parts. We also provide a qualitative comparison with other existing robotics frameworks.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {SCPR-MellmannXuEtAl-10,
  author = {Heinrich Mellmann and Yuan Xu and Thomas Krause and Florian Holzhauer},
  title = {NaoTH Software Architecture for an Autonomous Agent},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Workshop on Standards and Common Platforms for Robotics (SCPR 2010)},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {316--327}
}
An Approach to Close the Gap between Simulation and Real Robots
Yuan Xu, Heinrich Mellmann, Hans-Dieter Burkhard
2nd International Conference on Simulation, Modeling and Programming for Autonomous Robots (SIMPAR), pp. 533-544, inproceedings, (german)
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: Numerous simulators have been developed over the years to assist robotics research in the development, testing, and evaluation. Nevertheless, there is still a big gap between the simulation and the reality. This makes it difficult to transfer methods and code. The 3D simulator | SimSpark is developed and used by a big community of AI researchers in RoboCup. But up to now there are only few applications to real robots. In this paper, we discuss the general possibilities how the SimSpark simulator can be used to support research in cognitive robotics and present applications on the humanoid robot Nao. As a result of our investigation we have developed a unified team playing both in Simulation League and Standard Platform League in RoboCup.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {SIMPAR-XuMellmannEtAl-10,
  author = {Yuan Xu and Heinrich Mellmann and Hans-Dieter Burkhard},
  title = {An Approach to Close the Gap between Simulation and Real Robots},
  booktitle = {2nd International Conference on Simulation, Modeling and Programming for Autonomous Robots (SIMPAR)},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {533--544},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-17319-6_48},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-17319-6_48},
  note = {(german)}
}
Adaptive Motion Control: Dynamic Kick for a Humanoid Robot
Yuan Xu, Heinrich Mellmann
Proceedings of the 33rd Annual German Conference on Artificial Intelligence (KI 2010), 6359, pp. 392-399, inproceedings
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: Automatic, full body motion generation for humanoid robots presents a formidable computational challenge. The kicking motion is one of the most important motions in a soccer game. However, at the current state the most common approaches of implementing this motion are based on key frame technique. Such solutions are inflexible and cost a lot of time to adjust robot’s position. In this paper we present an approach for adaptive control of the motions. We implemented our approach in order to solve the task of kicking the ball on a humanoid robot Nao. The approach was tested both in simulation and on a real robot.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {KI-XuMellmann-10,
  author = {Yuan Xu and Heinrich Mellmann},
  title = {Adaptive Motion Control: Dynamic Kick for a Humanoid Robot},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 33rd Annual German Conference on Artificial Intelligence (KI 2010)},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {6359},
  pages = {392--399},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-16111-7_45},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-16111-7_45}
}

2009

Constraint Based World Modeling in Mobile Robotics
Daniel Göhring, Heinrich Mellmann, Hans-Dieter Burkhard
Proc. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2009), pp. 2538-2543, inproceedings
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: In this paper we present a novel approach using constraint based techniques for world modeling, i.e. self localization and object modeling. Within the last years, we have seen a reduction of landmarks such as beacons or colored goals within the RoboCup domain. Using other features as line information becomes more important. Using such sensor data is tricky, especially when the resulting position belief is stretched over a larger area. Constraints can overcome this limitations, as they have several advantages: they can represent large distributions and are easy to store and to communicate to other robots. Propagation of several constraints can be computationally cheap. Even high dimensional belief functions can be used. We will describe a sample implementation and show experimental results.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {ICRA-GoehringMellmann-09,
  author = {Daniel Göhring and Heinrich Mellmann and Hans-Dieter Burkhard},
  title = {Constraint Based World Modeling in Mobile Robotics},
  booktitle = {Proc. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2009)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {2538--2543},
  doi = {10.1109/ROBOT.2009.5152208}
}
Active Landmark Selection for Vision-Based Self-Localization
Heinrich Mellmann
Proceedings of the Workshop on Concurrency, Specification, and Programming CS&P 2009, Volume 2, pp. 398-405, inproceedings
[BibTeX][Abstract]
Abstract: The most of the vision based self-localization methods are using landmarks to estimate the position of the robot. The results of those methods depend highly on the precision of the perceptual information provided by the vision system. Depending on situation, some landmarks provide more certain measurements than others. We present a general criterion to predict the sensitivity of measurements concerning errors. In addition an algorithm is presented for automatic selection of optimal landmarks. This enables the robot to choose actively those landmarks that provide the highest certainty, which leads to better localization results. We demonstrate the performance and accuracy of the algorithm through a series of experiments.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {CSP-Mellmann-09,
  author = {Heinrich Mellmann},
  title = {Active Landmark Selection for Vision-Based Self-Localization},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Workshop on Concurrency, Specification, and Programming CS&P 2009},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {Volume 2},
  pages = {398--405},
  url = {http://csp2009.mimuw.edu.pl/proc.php}
}

2008

Using Reference Objects to Improve Vision-Based Bearing Measurements
Heinrich Mellmann, Matthias Jüngel, Michael Spranger
Proc. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems IROS 2008, pp. 3939-3945, inproceedings
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: Robots perceiving its environment using cameras usually need a good representation of how the camera is aligned to the body and how the camera is rotated relative to the ground. This is especially important for bearing-based distance measurement. In this paper we show how to use reference objects to improve vision-based distance measurements to objects of unknown size. Several methods for different kinds of reference objects are introduced. These are objects of known size (like a ball), objects extending over the horizon (like goals and beacons), and objects with known shape on the ground (like field lines). We give a detailed description how to determine the rotation of the robot's camera relative to the ground, provide an error-estimation for all methods and describe the experiments we performed on an Aibo robot.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {IROS-MellmannJuengelSpranger-08,
  author = {Heinrich Mellmann and Matthias Jüngel and Michael Spranger},
  title = {Using Reference Objects to Improve Vision-Based Bearing Measurements},
  booktitle = {Proc. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems IROS 2008},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {3939--3945},
  doi = {10.1109/IROS.2008.4651128}
}
Constraint Based Object State Modeling
Daniel Göhring, Heinrich Mellmann, Hans-Dieter Burkhard
European Robotics Symposium 2008 (EUROS), Volume 44/2008, pp. 63-72, inproceedings
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: Modeling the environment is crucial for a mobile robot. Common approaches use Bayesian filters like particle filters, Kalman filters and their extended forms. We present an alternative and supplementing approach using constraint techniques based on spatial constraints between object positions. This yields several advantages: a) the agent can choose from a variety of belief functions, b) the computational complexity is decreased by efficient algorithms. The focus of the paper are constraint propagation techniques under the special requirements of navigation tasks.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {EUROS-GoehringMellmann-08,
  author = {Daniel Göhring and Heinrich Mellmann and Hans-Dieter Burkhard},
  title = {Constraint Based Object State Modeling},
  booktitle = {European Robotics Symposium 2008 (EUROS)},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {Volume 44/2008},
  pages = {63--72},
  url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/th6218453434x817},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-540-78317-6_7}
}
Constraint Based Localization on a Humanoid Robot
Daniel Göhring, Heinrich Mellmann, Hans-Dieter Burkhard
Proceedings of the Workshop on Concurrency, Specification, and Programming CS&P 2008, inproceedings
[BibTeX][Abstract]
Abstract: In this paper we will present an application for constraint based methods to self localize within the RoboCup domain. During a robotic soccer game, robots of a team need to know where they and their team mates are on the Field, therefore they need to localize themselves. For self localization, constraint based methods can be an e?ective alternative to classic Bayesian approaches as Kalman ?lters or Monte-Carlo methods. In this paper we will present, how constraint based techniques can be applied to a humanoid robot. Therefore we will implement constraint based methods in a humanoid robot "NAO" and see how the constraint based approach works within the Standard Platform League.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {CSP-GoehringMellmannEtAl-08,
  author = {Daniel Göhring and Heinrich Mellmann and Hans-Dieter Burkhard},
  title = {Constraint Based Localization on a Humanoid Robot},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Workshop on Concurrency, Specification, and Programming CS&P 2008},
  year = {2008}
}
Constraint Based Belief Modeling
Daniel Göhring, Heinrich Mellmann, Hans-Dieter Burkhard
RoboCup 2008: Robot Soccer World Cup XII, inproceedings
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: In this paper we present a novel approach using constraint based techniques for world modeling, i.e. self localization and object mod- eling. Within the last years, we have seen a reduction of landmarks as beacons, colored goals, within the RoboCup domain. Using other fea- tures as line information becomes more important. Using such sensor data is tricky, especially when the resulting position belief is stretched over a larger area. Constraints can overcome this limitations, as they have several advantages: They can represent large distributions and are easy to store and to communicate to other robots. Propagation of a sev- eral constraints can be computationally cheap. Even high dimensional belief functions can be used. We will describe a sample implementation and show experimental results.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {RC-GoehringMellmann-08,
  author = {Daniel Göhring and Heinrich Mellmann and Hans-Dieter Burkhard},
  title = {Constraint Based Belief Modeling},
  booktitle = {RoboCup 2008: Robot Soccer World Cup XII},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2008}
}
Constraint Based World Modeling
Daniel Göhring, Heinrich Mellmann, Kataryna Gerasymova, Hans-Dieter Burkhard
Fundamenta Informaticae, Volume 85, 1-4, pp. 123-137, article
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: Common approaches for robot navigation use Bayesian filters like particle filters, Kalman filters and their extended forms. We present an alternative and supplementing approach using constraint techniques based on spatial constraints between object positions. This yields several advantages. The robot can choose from a variety of belief functions, and the computational complexity is decreased by efficient algorithms. The paper investigates constraint propagation techniques under the special requirements of navigation tasks. Sensor data are noisy, but a lot of redundancies can be exploited to improve the quality of the result. We introduce two quality measures: The ambiguity measure for constraint sets defines the precision, while inconsistencies are measured by the inconsistency measure. The measures can be used for evaluating the available data and for computing best fitting hypothesis. A constraint propagation algorithm is presented.
BibTeX:
@article {FI-GoehringMellmannGerasimova-08,
  author = {Daniel Göhring and Heinrich Mellmann and Kataryna Gerasymova and Hans-Dieter Burkhard},
  title = {Constraint Based World Modeling},
  journal = {Fundamenta Informaticae},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {Volume 85},
  number = {1-4},
  pages = {123-137},
  url = {http://iospress.metapress.com/content/2051310891588554/}
}
Memory-Based State-Estimation
Matthias Jüngel, Heinrich Mellmann
Fundamenta Informaticae, Volume 85, Number 1-4, pp. 297-311, article
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: In this paper we introduce a state-estimation method that uses a short-term memory to calculate the current state. A common way to solve state estimation problems is to use implementations of the Bayesian algorithm like Kalman filters or particle filters. When implementing a Bayesian filter several problems can arise. One difficulty is to obtain error models for the sensors and for the state transitions. The other difficulty is to find an adequate compromise between the accuracy of the belief probability distribution and the computational costs that are needed to update it. In this paper we show how a short-term memory of perceptions and actions can be used to calculate the state. In contrast to the Bayesian filter, this method does not need an internal representation of the state which is updated by the sensor and motion information. It is shown that this is especially useful when information of sparse sensors (sensors with non-unique measurements with respect of the state) has to be integrated.
BibTeX:
@article {FI-JuengelMellmann-08,
  author = {Matthias Jüngel and Heinrich Mellmann},
  title = {Memory-Based State-Estimation},
  journal = {Fundamenta Informaticae},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {Volume 85},
  number = {Number 1-4},
  pages = {297--311},
  url = {http://iospress.metapress.com/content/2051310891588554/}
}

2007

Improving Vision-Based Distance Measurements using Reference Objects
Matthias Jüngel, Heinrich Mellmann, Michael Spranger
RoboCup 2007: Robot Soccer World Cup XI, Volume 5001/2008, pp. 89-100, inproceedings
[BibTeX][Abstract] [PDF]
Abstract: Robots perceiving their environment using cameras usually need a good representation of how the camera is aligned to the body and how the camera is rotated relative to the ground. This is especially important for bearing-based distance measurements. In this paper we show how to use reference objects to improve vision-based distance measurements to objects of unknown size. Several methods for different kinds of reference objects are introduced. These are objects of known size (like a ball), objects extending over the horizon (like goals and beacons), and objects with known shape on the ground (like field lines). We give a detailed description how to determine the rotation of the robot's camera relative to the ground, provide an error-estimation for all methods and describe the experiments we performed on an Aibo robot.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings {RC-JuengelMellmannSpranger-07,
  author = {Matthias Jüngel and Heinrich Mellmann and Michael Spranger},
  title = {Improving Vision-Based Distance Measurements using Reference Objects},
  booktitle = {RoboCup 2007: Robot Soccer World Cup XI},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {Volume 5001/2008},
  pages = {89--100},
  url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/y4730241r836k4l5},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-540-68847-1}
}
Created by Heinirch Mellmann
Last update Jul 05 2016