Humboldt Universität zu Berlin | Department of Comupter Science | Chair of Theory of Programming
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The Petri Net Markup Language (PNML) is a proposal of an XML-based interchange format for Petri nets. Originally, the PNML was intended to serve as a file format for the Java version of the Petri Net Kernel . But, it turned out that currently several other groups are developing an XML-based interchange format too. So, the PNML is only one contribution to the ongoing discussion and to the standardization efforts of an XML-based format.

The specific feature of the PNML is its openness: It distinguishes between general features of all types of Petri nets and specific features of a specific Petri net type. The specific features are defined in a separate Petri Net Type Definition (PNTD) for each Petri net type.

Furthermore, several specific features are used in more than only one Petri net type. Therefore, there is a Conventions Document containing specific Petri net features. Thus, a concrete PNTD adds its its type specific features to PNML by referring to the Conventions Document. The standardization efforts have mainly an effect on this Conventions Document.

On these web pages, you will find the PNML, several PNTDs for different Petri net types, some examples, papers, and a first version of the Conventions Document. In its current version, the PNML demonstrates that an XML-based interchange format can be defined in a generic way. What features are considered to be `so' general such that they must be included in the PNML, and what features are considered to be specific to a particular net type is still subject to further discussion.


Software and Systems Engineering – High-level Petri Nets, Part 2: Transfer Format.
International Standard ISO/IEC 15909-2. Working Draft Version 0.9.0, June 2005
(Submitted for a combined ISO/IEC SC7 WD/CD registration and CD ballot.)
Ekkart Kindler
High-level Petri Nets – Transfer Format.
Working Draft Version 0.5.0 of the International Standard ISO/IEC 15909 Part 2.
(Submitted for a combined ISO/IEC SC7 WD/CD registration and CD ballot.)
Ekkart Kinder (ed.)
Proceedings of the Workshop on the Definition, Implementation and Application of a Standard Interchange Format for Petri Nets, June 2004
(Satellite event of the 25th International Conference on Application and Theory of Petri Nets 2004. Bologna, Italy, June 26, 2004.)
Jonathan Billington, Søren Christensen, Kees van Hee, Ekkart Kindler, Olaf Kummer, Laure Petrucci, Reinier Post, Christian Stehno, Michael Weber
The Petri Net Markup Language: Concepts, Technology, and Tools, March 2003
(This paper discusses the design principles, the basic concepts, and the underlying XML technology of PNML. The main purpose is to disseminate the ideas of PNML and to stimulate the discussion on and contributions to a standard Petri net interchange format. This paper is a preliminary version of a submission to the conference proceedings of the ICATPN 2003 to be held in Eindhoven, Netherlands, June 2003.)
Michael Weber, Ekkard Kindler
The Petri Net Markup Language, April 2002
(This paper describes the motivation and the realization of the Petri Net Markup Language. It was submitted to the volume "Petri Net Technology for Communication Based Systems" within the LNCS series "Advances in Petri Nets".)
Michael Weber, Ekkard Kindler
A Universal Module Concept for Petri Nets. An Implementation-Oriented Approach, June 2001
(This paper describes the extension of former versions of PNML such that Petri nets can be built in a modular way.)
Matthias Jüngel, Ekkart Kindler, Michael Weber
The Petri Net Markup Language, August 2000
(This paper may serve as a detailed starting point for the development of a standard interchange format. The paper has been submitted to the workshop AWPN, Koblenz, Germany, October 2000.)
Matthias Jüngel, Ekkart Kindler, Michael Weber
Towards a Generic Interchange Format for Petri Nets, April 2000
(This paper has been submitted to the Meeting on XML/SGML based Interchange Formats for Petri Nets, Aarhus, Denmark, June 2000)


Michael Weber (
Last updated: 2006-01-10